Recommendations

    • Reinforce and/or improve current infant and toddler immunization strategies.
    • Those countries, particularly LMICs, using wP vaccines for primary infant and childhood immunization, should continue to do so and aim to achieve and/or maintain DTP3 coverage ≥90%.
    • Immunization of pregnant women should be a priority
      • The GPI strongly recommends the use of aP vaccines in every pregnant woman where funding and supply make this feasible, and they should be a priority group for receiving the aP vaccine.
    • Universal immunization of adults where resources allow.
    • Universal immunization of adolescents.
    • Immunization of healthcare workers.
    • Immunization of childcare workers where resources allow.
    • Where national resources allow, aP vaccines should be given in all age groups because of their lower reactogenicity compared with wP vaccines.
    • Surveillance systems and diagnostic methods need to be improved:
      • The GPI recommends that, while culture remains the gold standard in identification of Bordetella pertussis, all countries should introduce PCR as a diagnostic method and, if possible, supplement with serology
      • The GPI advocates that the following clinical definitions should be used for the clinical diagnosis of pertussis (as per Cherry et al, CID, 2012):

  • Where wP vaccines are implemented, careful attention should be paid to quality control.